Thursday, May 12, 2016

JuniMass geo news in brief (June 2016)

Le coût de l'aide aux pays en développement destinée à leur permettre de s'adapter au changement climatique pourrait atteindre 500 milliards de dollars d'ici 2050, une estimation qui a quintuplé depuis la dernière évaluation, a indiqué l'Organisation des Nations Unies mercredi......500 milliards de dollars par an: les coûts liés au changement climatique


  1. Suisse: le train inaugural traverse le plus long tunnel du monde...

    Un train, avec à son bord plusieurs dirigeants européens, a inauguré mercredi en Suisse le tunnel du Saint-Gothard, le plus long du monde (57km), qui a nécessité 17 ans de travaux pharaoniques pour créer un nouvel axe de transport ferroviaire nord-sud.

    Le président de la Confédération helvétique Johann Schneider-Ammann, la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel, le président français François Hollande, le chef du gouvernement italien Matteo Renzi et le nouveau chancelier autrichien Christian Kern sont à bord du train "Gottardo 2016" pour cette traversée d'une trentaine de minutes. Le nouvel ouvrage, qui a nécessité 17 ans de travaux et entrera véritablement en service en décembre, constitue la pièce charnière de la nouvelle ligne ferroviaire à travers les Alpes (Neat), qui doit permettre de redéfinir la carte du transport dans l'axe Nord-Sud de l'Europe. Celle-ci vise en particulier à doper l'utilisation du rail et à décongestionner les routes, pour le trafic de marchandises, dans un corridor Rhin-Alpes s'étendant de Rotterdam, au bord de la mer du Nord, à Gênes, sur la Méditerranée. Le nouveau tunnel est appelé "de base" pour le différencier du "tunnel de faîte", construit au 19e siècle entre 1872 et 1881 et d'une longueur d'une quinzaine de km, qui a été creusé en hauteur dans le massif du Saint-Gothard. L'ouvrage a coûté 12,2 milliards de francs suisses (10,9 milliards d'euros). Il pourra être emprunté chaque jour par 260 trains de marchandises, à une vitesse de 100 km/h, et par 65 trains de voyageurs, pouvant rouler jusqu'à 200 km/h. (Belga)

  2. Rebuilding after deadly Ecuador quake to cost at least $3.3 billion...

    The cost of reconstruction after the earthquake last April that killed 663 people in Ecuador will total at least $3.344 billion, the government here said, adding that the funds will be raised from international entities, the private sector and the public.

    The head of the National Planning and Development Secretariat, Sandra Naranjo, discussed the matter on Wednesday, noting that the estimated reconstruction costs include reconstituting the assets that were lost as well as the value of the goods that were not produced and the services that were not provided as a consequence of the quake.

  3. Europe floods: Five dead amid fears of fresh heavy rainfall...

    There are fears that more heavy downpours forecast across a swathe of Europe may worsen floods that have already left five people dead.

    Four people drowned in southern Germany, with two more missing and thousands of homes without electricity.

    Some parts of central France have seen their worst floods in over a century. The body of an elderly woman was found in her flooded home.

    Thousands were evacuated in France and thousands of emergency call-outs made.

    Heavy showers are forecast right through the weekend across a band of central Europe from France to Ukraine, with as much as 50mm (2in) of rain falling in some parts in just a few hours.
    'Totally under water'

    After a day of respite on Wednesday in central France, the region is braced for a further rise in already exceptionally high river levels.

    The Loiret department, south of Paris, is on red alert, with seven others one level lower.

    Nearly 10,000 homes are without electricity....BBC

    1. Paris museums on alert as Seine rises after torrential rain...

      Torrential rains across France forced thousands of people from their homes and saw stranded motorists rescued by soldiers as flood waters rose.

      The Louvre museum halted entries this afternoon and will be closed to the public tomorrow to evacuate artworks held in its underground reserves as the River Seine began to burst its banks.

      The riverside museum - the most visited in the world, home to everything from the Mona Lisa to priceless Egyptian artefacts, took the radical action after days of torrential rain in the French capital.

      The Musee d'Orsay, which faces the Louvre on the opposite bank of the river, closed early today to put its own "protection plan" into place.

      Its galleries hold the world's greatest collection of Impressionist masterpieces, including the finest paintings by Renoir, Manet, Van Gogh and Degas, as well as 24 works by Gauguin.

      "The aim is to move works situated in areas vulnerable to flooding to safety by moving them to higher floors," the Louvre said in a statement.

      Only hours before, the museum had played down the threat to its vast underground stores which are fitted with anti-flood pumps and sealed waterproof doors.

      But as the Seine swelled to more than five metres above its usual levels, and burst its banks in places, its management decided to close its galleries

  4. Europe’s comet orbiter Rosetta back after ‘dramatic’ loss of contact ...

    Europe's trailblazing spacecraft Rosetta has resumed its exploration of a comet hurtling through the Solar System after a "dramatic weekend" in which contact with Earth was lost for nearly 24 hours, mission control said Thursday.

    The orbiter's navigation system, which works by tracking the position of stars, likely became confused after mistaking dust particles near the comet's surface for faraway heavenly bodies, the European Space Agency (ESA) said.

    "We lost contact with the spacecraft on Saturday evening for nearly 24 hours," mission manager Patrick Martin said on the agency's Rosetta blog.

    In orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta is now some 428 million kilometers from Earth and 468 million kilometers from the Sun - somewhere between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter - traveling at a speed of 17.65 kilometers per second.

    "Preliminary analysis by our flight dynamics team suggests that the star trackers locked onto a false star," said Martin, as Rosetta descended to within 5 kilometers of the frozen space rock blasting out jets of icy dust......

  5. Nepal seeks to drain giant glacial lake near Everest...

    Nepali soldiers have kicked off efforts to partially drain a giant glacial lake near Mount Everest, fearing possible flooding that could threaten the lives of thousands, an army official said Friday.

    Scientists say climate change is causing Himalayan glaciers to melt at an alarming rate, creating huge glacial lakes which could burst their banks and devastate mountain communities.

    Imja Tsho, located at an altitude of 5,010 metres (16,437 feet), just 10 kilometres (six miles) south of the world's highest peak, is the fastest-growing glacial lake in Nepal.

    The surface area covered by the lake expanded from 0.4 to 1.01 square kilometres between 1984 and 2009, triggering concerns that it may breach its banks and flood villages downstream.

    "With the aim of minimising the risk of a possible outburst ... the Nepal Army has begun efforts to lower the level of water in Imja lake by opening a channel," said army spokesman, Tara Bahadur Karki.

    "A mechanical gate will be installed and will be manually operated to control the water flow through the channel," Karki told AFP.

    The work began in April and the army expects to complete the project by the end of the year, he said....AFP

  6. Fourteen people were missing Saturday night after a boat capsized on a lake in China's southwest Sichuan province, state news agency Xinhua reported...

    The leisure vessel, which could seat 40, had been carrying 18 passengers when it capsized on Bailong lake in Guangyuan city due to strong winds, Xinhua quoted the local government as saying in a statement.

    Rescuers managed to save four people and were continuing to search for fourteen others, the agency said.

    In June last year a cruise ship sank in a storm on the Yangtze river, killing 442 people, in China's worst shipping disaster for more than six decades.

  7. Journée de l'océan: les fonds marins bien moins connus que le sol lunaire...

    Le relief des fonds marins, contrairement au sol lunaire, reste très peu connu, regrettent des experts internationaux à l'occasion mercredi de la Journée mondiale de l'océan, qui posera la question de leur place dans les politiques des gouvernements.

    "C'est quand même un peu fort qu'on ne sache pas comment est fait le fond de l'océan aujourd'hui", peste Françoise Gaill, directrice de recherche au CNRS et coordinatrice du comité scientifique de la plateforme Océan et Climat, qui organise avec l'Unesco cette troisième journée dédiée aux océans.

    Actuellement, moins de 10% du relief des fonds marins, au-delà de 200 mètres de profondeur, est connu, selon l'Organisation hydrographique internationale (OHI), alors que près des deux tiers des terres de la planète sont couvertes d'eau.

    "Il n'y a pas de raison qu'on connaisse mieux la Lune que le fond des océans", estime Françoise Gaill. "Acquérir une telle connaissance coûterait cher, mais ce n'est qu'une question de priorités", juge-t-elle, indiquant que le sujet sera cette année au centre de la Journée mondiale de l'océan.

    Selon une étude américaine parue dans la revue International hydrographic review de décembre 2001, il serait cependant possible de cartographier l'ensemble des fonds marins, au-delà de 500 mètres de profondeur, au moyen d'un seul navire exploité pendant 200 ans. "Avec 40 navires, cela prendrait 5 ans!" s'enthousiasme Walter Smith, géophysicien à l'Agence américaine océanique et atmosphérique (NOAA), estimant le coût d'une telle opération à deux ou trois milliards de dollars.

    "Ca peut sembler beaucoup mais c'est moins que ce que prévoit de dépenser la Nasa pour sa future mission d'exploration d'Europa, la mystérieuse lune de Jupiter", assure le scientifique du Laboratoire d'altimétrie par satellite de la

  8. A shallow quake measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale struck off a tourist resort of Bali Island in central Indonesia on Thursday, but no tsunami alert was issued, an official of the meteorology and geophysics agency said...

    The quake jolted at 11:13 a.m. Jakarta time (0413 GMT) and the epicenter, with a depth of 10 km under sea bed, was located 308 km southeast of the Klungkung town, an official of the agency told Xinhua by phone.

    The intensity of the quake was felt at 3 to 4 MMI (Modified Mercally Intensity) in Denpasar city and 2 MMI in Karang Kates of the island, the official said.

    The shakes of the quake were felt strong in Bali Island, but did not cause damage or casualties, Gde Jaya, a senior official of local disaster agency said.

    "The situation is normal here, there was no panic when the shakes were felt," he told Xinhua over phone from Bali Island.

    Indonesia is prone to earthquakes as it is on a quake-vulnerable zone called "the Pacific Ring of Fire."

  9. Experiment 'turns waste CO2 to stone'...

    Scientists think they have found a smart way to constrain carbon dioxide emissions - just turn them to stone.

    The researchers report an experiment in Iceland where they have pumped CO2 and water underground into volcanic rock.

    Reactions with the minerals in the deep basalts convert the carbon dioxide to a stable, immobile chalky solid.

    Even more encouraging, the team writes in Science magazine, is the speed at which this process occurs: on the order of months.

    "Of our 220 tonnes of injected CO2, 95% was converted to limestone in less than two years," said lead author Juerg Matter from Southampton University, UK.

    "It was a huge surprise to all the scientists involved in the project, and we thought, 'Wow! This is really fast'," he recalled on the BBC's Science In Action programme.....

  10. Philippines: le volcan Bulusan crache des cendres et de la vapeur ...

    Le volcan Bulusan, situé dans l'est des Philippines, s'est mis à cracher des cendres et de la vapeur vendredi, ont indiqué des vulcanologues. Aucun blessé n'est à déplorer jusqu'ici.

    Les cendres grisâtres sont projetés à une hauteur de 2 kilomètres, a précisé Renato Solidum, directeur du Phivolcs, le centre philippin de vulcanologie et de sismologie. "De telles éruptions sont dangereuses pour les personnes se trouvant dans un rayon de 4 kilomètres". M. Solidum incite les habitants de la zone autour du volcan à éviter d'inhaler les cendres qui tombent en ce moment sur leurs villages.

    Le Phivolcs conseille par ailleurs aux pilotes d'éviter de voler à proximité de la zone.

    Le volcan Bulusan, situé dans la province orientale de Sorsogon, est le quatrième volcan le plus actif des Philippines. Il est entré en éruption 16 fois depuis 1885.

  11. Southern California Earthquake Felt in Los Angeles, San Diego...

    Residents across Southern California were woken early Friday by a 5.1-magnitude earthquake that rocked the region.

    The United States Geological Survey said the earthquake struck around 60 miles northeast of San Diego and 110 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles at 1:05 a.m. local time (4:05 a.m. ET).

    The quake, which struck at a depth of less than 1 mile, was followed by three nearby aftershocks over the next three minutes measuring between magnitude 2.8 and 3.5, according to the USGS. Another two aftershocks of similar magnitudes were recorded over the next 40 minutes.

    The epicenter was around 13 miles north of Borrego Springs, which has a population of around 3,500. The local police department told NBC News there was no reports of

  12. Orbital ATK's unmanned Cygnus space capsule departed from the International Space Station on schedule Tuesday, three months after delivering 7,500 pounds (3,400 kilos) of supplies, material for scientific experiments and equipment to the orbiting outpost...

    Cygnus, loaded with two tons of trash, was released by the space station's robotic arm at 1330 GMT, NASA said.

    Once the spacecraft is far enough from the station, some five hours after its release, NASA engineers will light a fire inside a special onboard module to study the flame's propagation and oxygen consumption in microgravity.

    Experiments with fire have been rarely conducted on orbiting spacecraft because of the risk to crews on manned missions.

    But scientists hope "Saffire 1," as the experiment is dubbed, will yield valuable data for developing better fire detection and control systems and equipment.

    "NASA's objective is to reduce the risk of long-duration exploration missions, and a spacecraft fire is one of the biggest concerns for NASA and the international space exploration community," said Jason Crusan, director of NASA's advanced exploration systems director.

    Cygnus also is to release five nano satellites known as "LEMUR CubeSats" that will form part of a constellation of satellites tracking maritime traffic and weather...AFP

  13. A Greek archaeologist believes he has found a fragment of the lost throne of the rulers of Mycenae, famous from ancient myth and the story of the Trojan War...

    Christofilis Maggidis, who heads excavations at the site in southern Greece, says the chunk of worked limestone was found two years ago, in a streambed under the imposing citadel.

    He told a press conference in Athens Tuesday that the throne was among sections of the hilltop palace that collapsed during an earthquake around 1200 B.C.

    Greek Culture Ministry officials have distanced themselves from the identification, citing a separate study that ruled the chunk to be part of a stone basin.

    No other thrones have been found in mainland Greece's Mycenaean palaces. An older, smaller example was found on Knossos, Crete.

  14. An unusual combination of conditions brought snow to the peaks of Mauna Kea on Hawaii's big island, forecasters said...

    Hawaii's tropical weather doesn't extend to the state's highest peak, but late Monday, a cold pool of air made temperatures drop below freezing. About the same time, thunderstorms moved over the island, high enough to bring Mauna Kea a dusting of snow.

    The unusual event -- it does occasionally happen in winter -- provided some unique pictures of the mountain's observatory for June.

    Forecasters said the wetter than usual trade winds will continue through Wednesday with rain expected.

  15. The United Nations warns at least 1.5 million people in Mozambique need international assistance to see them through a disastrous El Nino-induced drought...

    In the central and southern parts of Mozambique, an estimated 1.5 million people are under the strain of a drought, which has been developing for months.

    The U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs reports a severe food shortage in Mozambique is taking a toll on children. OCHA spokesman Jens Laerke says some 95,000 children are acutely malnourished.

    He tells VOA their condition could become life-threatening in the coming six months if they do not receive nutritional assistance.

    “We are afraid that many of these children may die as a result of this. Of course, El Nino is a natural phenomenon. It happens; however, it is preventable - not the phenomenon, but that it develops into a disaster with proper response, but also preparedness. So, there may be, of course, fatalities as a direct consequence of lack of funding,” he said....

  16. In the result of heavy rains in the southern region of China has killed at least 25 people, and more than 33 thousand people were forced to leave their homes, reported the news Agency AP...

    At least six people are still missing, said Chinese authorities.

    Total natural disaster affected the area ten million people. Flooded 40 thousand hectares of agricultural land. Direct economic losses from the disaster already amounted to 550 million dollars. Authorities are trying to alleviate the situation by opening the dam to discharge water into the Yangtze river.

    Torrential rains in this monsoon season was stronger than before.

  17. Flooding and landslides in central Java have killed at least 35 people, while 25 others are missing on the Indonesia island...

    The heavy rains have impacted thousands of homes, with many of the structures under water.

    The rains have also triggered landslides, sweeping cars and people off streets and burying people in their homes.

    Rescue workers are looking for survivors on Java, the southernmost of the county's main islands and home to the capital, Jakarta.

    Flooding and landslides are common occurrences in Indonesia; a vast, tropical, disaster-prone archipelago home to more than 250 million people. Java is the world's most populous island.

  18. Solar Impulse sets off on 90-hour Atlantic crossing...

    The Solar Impulse 2 aircraft has set off from New York to cross the Atlantic, one of the toughest stages of its attempt to fly around the globe using solar energy.

    The pilot, Bertrand Piccard, will attempt to reach Seville in Spain in about 90 hours.

    It is the first ever attempt to cross the Atlantic in a purely solar-powered aircraft.

    Mr Piccard takes short naps while the plane is in flight.

    The Atlantic crossing will be "the longest distance we have had to fly this year," the Solar Impulse team said.

    The flight was supposed to begin on Sunday but was delayed by bad weather...BBC

  19. 'Warmer than normal' summer ahead: Environment Canada...

    The first day of summer, and the longest day of the year, is forecast to be a hot one in much of the country, with temperatures on Monday expected to soar well above normal in some of Canada’s biggest cities.

    Environment Canada's senior climatologist David Phillips says Monday's weather is a preview of what's in store for Canadians this summer.

    "We see, from B.C. to Newfoundland, our models are showing for July, August and early September a country that's going to be warmer than normal," Phillips told CTV News Channel on Monday morning.....

  20. Inondations en Chine: 22 morts, 20 disparus et 197 000 déplacés...

    De grosses inondations dans le centre de la Chine ont fait 22 morts et 197 000 déplacés depuis samedi, ont rapporté lundi les médias officiels.

    Vingt personnes sont en outre portées disparues après des pluies d'été torrentielles, a précisé l'agence Xinhua. Huit personnes sont prises au piège dans une mine de charbon du sud-ouest du pays, dans la province de Guizhou.

    Les dégâts sont d'un coût estimé à 2,7 milliards de yuans (410 millions de dollars), a ajouté l'agence, citant le ministère des Affaires civiles.

    Les pluies torrentielles devraient se poursuivre pendant les trois prochains jours dans le sud de la Chine.

  21. Japon: au moins trois morts dans des inondations et glissements de terrain...

    Au moins trois personnes ont trouvé la mort dans des inondations et glissements de terrain survenus dans le sud-ouest du Japon, région frappée par des tremblements de terre en avril, ont indiqué les autorités locales qui ont aussi fait état de plusieurs disparus.

    La chaîne de TV publique NHK a rapporté de son côté un bilan provisoire de quatre morts et deux personnes dont on est sans nouvelles. La préfecture de Kumamoto, noyée sous de fortes précipitations, a appelé les habitants à la vigilance alors que le sol a été rendu instable par les récents séismes, deux puissants tremblements de terre suivis de plus de 1.700 secousses secondaires, qui ont fait une soixantaine de morts. Les autorités ont recommandé à des dizaines de milliers de personnes de quitter leur logement par mesure de précaution, et interdit d'accès certains endroits, des conseils qui valent parfois depuis plusieurs semaines en raison de la fragilité des

  22. Two fire fighters have lost their lives in Cyprus...

    A second forest fire fighter lost his life battling the fire in the Solea region, situated along the main Nicosia–Troodos road, the Police said on Tuesday.

    President of the Republic, Nicos Anastasiades, expressed his deep condolences to the family of the deceased reassuring that the state will stand by the family.

    “It is with great sorrow that I was informed late last night about the death of forest fire fighter Marios Aristotelous, who succumbed to his injuries while on duty in the battle to extinguish the disastrous fire in the Solea region,” the President said in a written statement.

    Fourty four-year-old, Marios Aristotelous, was in the same vehicle as forest fire fighter Andreas Sofocleous who also succumbed to his injuries on Monday.

    In a written statement issued on Monday evening, President Anastasiades said he was shocked at the death of forest fire fighter Andreas Sofocleous, who succumbed to his injuries while on duty, during the heroic efforts by himself and his colleagues to put out the fire, raging in the Solea region......

  23. La pollution de l’air est responsable de 48 000 morts par an en France...

    Une étude publiée mardi démontre que la pollution de l’air due aux particules fines est responsable de la mort de 48 000 personnes par an en France. Ce chiffre correspond à 9 % de la mortalité en France continentale.

    Les médecins la qualifient de "mortalité invisible". Selon une étude d’impact réalisée par Santé publique France et rendue publique mardi 21 juin, la pollution de l'air due aux particules fines est responsable de 48 000 décès chaque année en France.

    À titre de comparaison, 49 000 personnes meurent chaque année à cause de l’alcool et 78 000 des conséquences de la consommartion de

  24. Lightning in Indian states 'kills 79'...

    At least 79 people have been killed by lightning strikes in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh, officials say.

    Fifty three people died in Bihar. Ten people were killed in the eastern state of Jharkhand, and at least 16 died in Madhya Pradesh.

    Most of the people who died were working on farms during torrential rains on Tuesday, reports said.

    Lightning strikes are common in India during heavy monsoon rains.

    In Bihar, the deaths occurred in Nalanda, Aurangabad, Rohtas, Purnea, Munger, Gaya, Saharsa, Bhagalpur, Banka and Kaimur.

    At least 2,000 people have died in lightning strikes in India every year since 2005, according to the National Crime Records Bureau.

    India receives 80% of its annual rainfall during the monsoon season, which runs between June and September....BBC

  25. India successfully launched Wednesday a rocket carrying a record 20 satellites as its famously frugal space agency looks to grab a larger slice of the lucrative commercial space market...

    The rocket blasted off from the southern spaceport of Sriharikota carrying satellites from the US, Germany, Canada and Indonesia, the most in a single Indian mission.

    Most of the satellites will enter orbit to observe and measure the Earth's atmosphere, while another aims to provide service for amateur radio operators.

    "Each of these small objects that you are putting into space will carry out their own activity, which is independent of the other, and each of them will live a wonderful life for a finite period," Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman A.S Kiran Kumar told the NDTV news network.

    The business of putting commercial satellites into space for a fee is growing as phone, Internet and other companies as well as countries seek greater and more high-tech communications.....AFP

  26. Extreme weather events have killed 51 people in eastern China and injured dozens more, state media say...

    Official news agency Xinhua reports that a tornado accompanied by torrential rain and hailstorms hit the province of Jiangsu on Thursday afternoon.

    Homes in Yancheng city were flattened, it adds.

    CCTV showed overturned vehicles, snapped street light poles and toppled electricity pylons, AP reports...BBC

  27. Landslides and floods in India's Central Java province at the weekend had left 56 people dead and 9 missing, with 22 others injured, an official from the disaster management agency said Thursday...

    As many as 395 villagers have taken shelters as the natural disasters damaged over 143 houses and scores of infrastructure facilities, spokesman for the National Disaster Management Agency Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said.

    A rescue operation, involving soldiers, police, volunteers, and those from local search and rescue office, is underway, he said.

    Heavy downpours triggered landslides and floods in the province on Saturday with the districts of Purworejo, Banjarnegara and Kebumen being the hardest-hit, the official said.

    Indonesia is frequently hit by floods and landslides during heavy downpours.

  28. China launches next-generation carrier rocket Long March-7...

    China successfully launched the next generation Long March-7 rocket Saturday which also included the inauguration of the Wenchang Space Launch Center on Hainan Island.

    The main payload for the maiden launch includes a next generation crew vehicle that is expected to make a a short orbital flight before being recovered in Mongolia

  29. The International Energy Agency says each year about 6.5 million deaths worldwide are linked to air pollution and warns that the number will grow unless the energy sector steps up its efforts to slash emissions...

    In the agency's first report on the subject, the IEA projected Monday that premature deaths from outdoor air pollution would rise to 4.5 million by 2040, from 3 million today, while premature deaths from household air pollution would drop to 3 million from 3.5 million.

    However, the report said a 7 percent increase in investments in clean-burning cook stoves, cleaner fuels and other measures by 2040 could result in sharp health improvements.

    Outdoor air pollution comes mainly from power plants, factories and cars while household pollution stems from dirty cook stoves, primarily in developing countries.

  30. Hole in the ozone layer over Antarctic shrinking, study shows...

    The hole in the ozone layer over the Antarctic has begun to shrink, signaling good news for the environment decades after an international accord to phase out certain pollutants, researchers said Thursday.

    The study found that the ozone hole had shrunk by 1.5 million square miles (four million square kilometers) -- an area about the size of India -- since 2000.

    "It's a big surprise," said lead author Susan Solomon, an atmospheric chemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in an interview with Science magazine.

    "I didn't think it would be this early."

    The study attributed the ozone's recovery to the "continuing decline of atmospheric chlorine originating from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)," or chemicals that were once emitted by dry cleaning, refrigerators, hairspray and other aerosols.

    Most of the world signed on to the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which banned the use of CFCs.

    "We can now be confident that the things we've done have put the planet on a path to heal," said by AFP


Only News

EL News

Blog Widget by LinkWithin